Email στο android σας – Εγκατάσταση και Ρυθμίσεις

Email στο android σας με απλές οδηγίες

H ρύθμιση του email στο Android σας, είναι ιδιαίτερα απλή.

Πρώτα φτιάξτε τον email λογ/σμό σας μέσα από το περιβάλλον διαχείρισης του web hosting που έχετε στην dnhost.

Ανοίξτε την εφαρμογή δημιουργίας ηλεκτρονικού λογαριασμού email. Πατήστε στο “Ρυθμίσεις” (στην Αγγλική έκδοση θα το βρείτε σαν Settings)

θα το βρείτε επάνω αριστερά στην οθόνη σας.

 

Επιλέξτε “Προσθήκη Λογαριασμού” (Add Account…)

Εισάγετε την Email διεύθυνση σας. Επιλέξτε “ΜΗ ΑΥΤΟΜΑΤΗ ΡΥΘΜΙΣΗ

Επιλέξτε “POP3 ή IMAP” όχι EXCHANGE . Στο παράδειγμα, έχουμε επιλέξει IMAP.

Εισάγετε το Συνθηματικό (κωδικός/password) του λογαριασμού email που έχετε δημιουργήσει μέσα στο Plesk panel σας.

Στην περιοχή “Διακομιστή ΕΙΣερχόμενης αλληλογραφίας” (Incoming Mail Server) εισάγετε: 

Όνομα χρήστη” (Username): το email σας πχ user@domain.gr

Κωδικός πρόσβασης” (Password): θα είναι ήδη συμπληρωμένο.

Διακομιστής” (Host Name): mail.domain.gr (όπου domain.gr γράφετε το domain σας)

Τύπος ασφάλειας” > Καμία

Πατήστε στο “Διακομιστή ΕΞερχόμενης αλληλογραφίας” (Outgoing Mail Server) εισάγετε το: 

Όνομα host” (Host name): mail.domain.gr  (ΑΝΤΙ ΓΙΑ domain.gr γράφετε το domain σας)

Θύρα” > 587

Τύπος ασφάλειας” > Καμία

Να απαιτείται σύνδεση” > Πάντα ‘τσεκαρισμένο’

Όνομα χρήστη” (Username): το email σας πχ user@domain.gr

Συνθηματικό” (Password): συμπληρώστε το password του email σας.

Επιλογές λογαριασμού

Επιλέξτε την συχνότητα συγχρονισμού (αν ακολουθήσατε τις οδηγίες για IMAP) στα 15 λεπτά. 

Ολοκλήρωση ρυθμίσεων

Δώστε το όνομά σας (προαιρετικό) για τον λογαριασμό σας και για την εξερχόμενη αλληλογραφία.

Πατήστε επόμενο για να ολοκληρώσετε τις ρυθμίσεις  του λογαριασμού σας.

Είσαστε έτοιμοι να πάρετε τα email σας στο Android!


H διαδικασία για το Android γενικά περιγράφεται και εδώ:
Επιλέγετε Settings > Personal > Accounts –> κλικ στο Add account –> κλικ στο Personal (
POP3) ή Personal (IMAP) και ακολουθείτε τη διαδικασία.

WINDOWS How to Boot in Safe Mode on Windows 10

Ever attempted to troubleshoot your own computer? Then you’ve encountered Safe Mode. Safe Mode is an inbuilt troubleshooting feature which disables unnecessary drivers and programs during the startup process. It allows us to isolate any setting or system errors and fix them at the root, without non-essential applications interfering.

For example, you can use Safe Mode to run System Restore when troubleshooting your computer or to delete a file in use by another program. Here we’ll take a quick look at booting into Safe Mode with Windows 10, and what to do if you cannot boot into Safe Mode.

Method 1: System Configuration

To open the System Configuration screen, type msconfig in your Start Menu search bar and select the Best Match. Open the Boot tab and note the Boot Options. Selecting the Safe Boot option will force your system to boot into Safe Mode following its next restart.

windows 10 system config

You can choose from additional options. Here’s what they do:

  • Minimal: Starts Safe Mode with the absolute minimal amount of drivers and services, but with the standard Windows GUI (Graphical User Interface).
  • Alternate Shell: Starts Safe Mode with a Command Prompt, without the Windows GUI. Requires knowledge of advanced text commands, as well as navigating the operating system without a mouse.
  • Active Directory Repair: Starts Safe Mode with access to machine-specific information, such as hardware models. If we unsuccessfully install new hardware, corrupting the Active Directory, Safe Mode can be used to restore system stability by repairing corrupted data or adding new data to the directory.
  • Network: Starts Safe Mode with the necessary services and drivers for networking, with the standard Windows GUI.

Select Minimal > Apply > OK. System Configuration will now ask if you want to restart your system. Selecting Restart will immediately initiate the restart process, so be sure to save any active documents or projects.

Method 2: Advanced Startup

Your next option is Windows 10 Advanced Startup. It isn’t that advanced, but it is really useful to know.

Windows 10 Advanced Startup

Type advanced start up in your Start Menu search bar and select the Best Match. Now, under Advanced start-up, select Restart Now.

Clicking Restart Now will restart your system in recovery mode where you will encounter three options: Continue, Troubleshoot, or Turn Off Your PC.

Select Troubleshoot > Advanced Options. You now have a new range of options to choose from.

Select Start-up Settings > Restart. Your system will restart. The Startup Settings screen will load after you reboot. From here, choose the requisite option for Safe Mode.

windows 10 advanced startup settings

Advanced Startup Shortcut

You can skip the somewhat lengthy clicking process by holding down Shift and clicking Restart under Power, found in the Windows 10 Start Menu. This reboot takes you straight to the Recovery options, where you can select Troubleshoot > Advanced Options > Startup Settings.

Windows 10 Restart

Method 3: Tapping

Until the introduction of Windows 8, the most common method for entering Safe Mode was tapping F8 on your keyboard during startup. Tapping F8 brings up the Safe Mode options screen, listing the options found under Method One (above) and several alternatives.

Windows 10 (and Windows 8/8.1) has F8 Safe Mode disabled by default. However, you can sacrifice a couple of seconds during startup by enabling the F8 menu using the Command Prompt.

Begin by opening an elevated Command Prompt. Right-click the Start menu and select Command Prompt (Admin). Select Yes in the User Account Control dialogue, if it appears. Command Prompt should now be open.

Windows 10 Start Option

Input (or copy/paste) the following command:

bcdedit /set {default} bootmenupolicy legacy

Job done!

Windows 10 Command Prompt BCDEdit

To undo this legacy command at any time, reopen the elevated Command Prompt as per the above instructions and type:

bcdedit /set {default} bootmenupolicy standard

This returns startup to its original state, so to reach Safe Mode you’ll have to use one of the alternate options in this article.

What If Nothing Works?

Even if none of the above works, you still have two aces up your sleeve.

If you installed Windows 10 via a disc or USB flash drive, you can boot straight into recovery mode by inserting the said installation media before turning your system on.

Choose your keyboard layout, followed by Repair Your Computer, in the bottom-left of the screen. From here you can head to Troubleshoot > Advanced Options where you’ll find System Restore, System Image Recovery, Startup Repair, Command Prompt, and Go Back to the Previous Build.

windows 10 repair your computer

For System Image Recovery to work, you’ll have to have made a backup image before your system error, something we would absolutely advise you to do. You can create a System Image by typing recovery into the Start Menu search bar and selecting the Best Match. The Advanced Recovery Tools will open. Select Create a Recovery Drive and follow the steps.

Another helpful tool at your disposal is the System Repair Disc. Unlike the System Image, these aren’t machine-specific, so you can acquire one via a friend if all goes completely pear-shaped.

Windows 10 System Repair

Head to Control Panel > System and Security > Back-up and Restore (Windows 7).

Don’t let the Windows 7 tag put you off: you’re in the right place. Select Create a System Repair Disc from the left-hand column, and follow the instructions.

How Do I Get Out of Safe Mode?

Once you fix your Windows 10 issue, you can leave Safe Mode. But how do you get out of Safe Mode once you’re in there?

There are two options, depending on how you booted into Safe Mode.

If you entered Safe Mode using Method 1 (via System Configuration), you must turn the Safe Mode option off in the configuration window. Otherwise, Windows 10 will boot back into Safe Mode after each restart.

If you entered Safe Mode using Method 2 (via Advanced Startup) or Method 3 (via Tapping Your Keyboard), shut down or restart your system to leave Safe Mode.

Accessing Safe Mode on Windows 10 Is Simple

You now know the three easiest methods to access Windows 10 Safe Mode. Make sure to take note of the final section on System Image Recovery and System Repair Discs. Do always remember the former only works if you’ve set the recovery location before your world began collapsing in a BSOD-induced nightmare.

If you’re truly in a terrible state of affairs, with no Image Recovery and no repair disc, you could always try tech-support savior Hirens BootCD. It has saved many people, many times, and it’ll save you too!

source: https://www.makeuseof.com/

How to Create a Windows 8 Recovery Disk

he days of reinstalling Windows whenever your PC runs into trouble are long since gone. All you need to fix Windows 8 is a recovery disk, either on CD/DVD, USB drive or an external hard disk drive.

Whether you’ve upgraded from an old version of Windows or bought a new device, one of the first things that you should do is set up your own recovery disk, a process that basically installs a set of tools onto your chosen media that can then be used to repair issues with Windows 8.

These useful tools will enable you to boot your computer and run recovery tools, with the aim of quickly resolving problems caused by bad downloads, hardware installation faults or even a dodgy hard disk drive.

Recovery Disk vs. Recovery Partition

It may be the case that your Windows 8 PC has a recovery image (installed in its own partition) or even quick restore disks that shipped with the device that can be used to quickly overcome issues and reset your computer to the state it was in when you bought it.

The recovery disk tool that ships as part of Windows is at least an alternative that will save time and effort reinstalling your favourite applications and games – assuming the problems you’re experiencing are ones that can be fixed with the tools on offer.

You can check if your computer already has a recovery partition by opening the Charms bar, selecting Search and typing command. Right-click Command Prompt and select Run as administrator.

muo-w8-recovery-check

In the Command Prompt box, type recimg /showcurrent and press Enter. If the message “There is no active custom recovery image” is displayed, then you will need to create one first before creating the recovery drive.

To save space on your HDD or SSD storage, you can delete the recovery partition later, but you will of course need your recovery disk (whether USB, optical or external hard disk) should you run into trouble at a later date.

What You Need for Creating Your Own Recovery Disk

After checking whether your computer has a recovery image installed, you will need to bring together the tools you need to create the recovery disk.

muo-w8-recovery-usb

Although CD/DVD is a good option, you might be using a brand new computer with no optical drive. Fitting an external drive might be an option, but for speed you should rely on something a little more flexible, such as a USB flash drive or perhaps an SD card with a USB adapter, if you have a spare memory card.

If your computer doesn’t already have a recovery partition, it will need one setting up before the recovery disk can be created.

As described above, open the Command Prompt with administrative privileges and proceed to make a folder for the recovery image using mkdir c:\RefreshImage.  Tap Enter when you’re done, and prompt Windows to create the image in that folder with recimg –CreateImage c:\RefreshImage.

muo-w8-recovery-createimage

Note that the USB flash drive or SD card that you use will be wiped clean in the process of creating a recovery drive. As such, you should remove and archive any vital data that is usually stored on it.

Create a Windows 8 USB Recovery Disk

To get started, in Windows 8 open the Charms menu and select Search. Enter Recovery, select Settings and then Create a recovery drive, agreeing to any prompts to enter your admin password. In the recovery drive tool, check the box for Copy the recovery partition from the PC to the recovery drive and click Next.

muo-w8-recovery-recoverydrive

You will then see a screen that displays the size of the recovery partition. You will need to ensure that the USB flash drive you are using is big enough, and connect it to your PC. If you’re intending to use an external hard drive, make sure you have created a dedicated partition of sufficient size for this purpose on the device.

Select the USB device you want to use as a recovery drive, click Next > Create and wait, following any on-screen prompts. When you’re done, click Finish.

(If you want to reclaim the space used by this process, you can remove the recovery partition by selecting Delete the recovery partition > Delete.)

Using Optical Media

If you prefer to use a CD or DVD (this might be a good idea if you think your USB device might fail) then you will need to follow a slightly different set of instructions. Before proceeding, however, make sure you have a writable CD or DVD in your optical drive.

After clicking Create a recovery drive, make sure that no boxes are checked (specifically the Copy the recovery partition… box) and click Next > Create a system repair disc with a CD or DVD instead.

With this option selected, the remainder of the steps above are the same. As long as the recovery drive will fit onto your CD or DVD, you shouldn’t have any problems.

Booting From the Recovery Disk

Should you ever need to use the recovery disk, you will need to insert it into your computer’s USB drive before booting up. From here, follow any onscreen prompts to boot the computer using the disk, select language settings and choose a recovery option.

 

Conclusion: This Works for Windows 8 and RT!

Creating a Windows 8 recovery disk really is something that you should set time aside for to complete. You don’t know when it might prove a vital tool in restoring your computer without forcing you to resort to a reinstallation or quick restore disks – both of which are solutions that will delete any user data you have saved on your system drive (unless you sensibly utilise a secondary partition for personal documents and data).

Better still, the creation of a Windows 8 recovery disk works for both the standard Windows 8 and the RT alternative.

WINDOWS How to Fix an Unexpected Store Exception Error in Windows 10

Getting a blue screen of death (also known as a stop code error), where your system unexpectedly crashes, is frustrating. Especially when you don’t understand the problem. If the error is named “Unexpected Store Exception,” we can help.

Despite what you might think, this error has nothing to do with the Microsoft Store. We’re going to show you various ways to troubleshoot this error to determine the cause of an Unexpected Store Exception in Windows 10.

1. Check the Health of Your Hard Drive

The error often indicates that you’re using a failing hard drive. It’s easy to check this with a program like CrystalDiskInfo. Download the standard edition, run the installer, and open the program.

 

CrystalDiskInfo hard drive health check

The tabs at the top let you change between drives if you have multiple. Look at the Health Status, which is being determined from the values listed in the table beneath.

Good means exactly that and shows your drive is in fine health. Bad or Caution are obviously negative.

If you see either Bad or Caution status then you need to replace the drive as soon as possible because it’s at risk of failing imminently. In fact, even if you see Good, it’s worth switching the drive if you have one spare—the number one cause of the Unexpected Store Exception stop code is a faulty hard drive.

See the guide on how to replace a hard drive if you need help with replacing yours.

2. Update Your Display Driver

Display drivers causing incompatibility issues can also trigger this error. It’s worth ensuring they are updated.

To begin, boot your system into Safe Mode. Check out our guide on booting Windows 10 in Safe Mode if you need a hand.

 

Press Win + X and click Device Manager. Once here, double-click on Display adapters. This will display your graphics card. Right-click the result and click Uninstall device. Confirm it and restart your PC.

device manager, display driver, uninstall device

Press Win + I to open Settings and click Update & Security. Once here, click Check for updates. Windows should automatically find the latest driver and update your system.

If that doesn’t work, go to your graphics card manufacturer’s website to download the drivers, following their instructions.

3. Run System File Checker

Faulty system files could also cause this error. Handily, Windows includes an easy way for you to scan your system and have it automatically attempt to repair any problematic files.

Press Win + X and click Command Prompt (Admin). Once opened, type sfc /scannow and press Enter.

command prompt, sfc /scannow

This will initiate the scan. It’ll display a message once completed. It might “not find any integrity violations”, which means all is fine. Alternatively, it might say:

  • Windows Resource Protection found corrupt files and successfully repaired them. Details are included in the CBS.Log %WinDir%\Logs\CBS\CBS.log
  • Windows Resource Protection found corrupt files but was unable to fix some of them. Details are included in the CBS.Log %WinDir%\Logs\CBS\CBS.log

If so, input the following in Command Prompt to view that log:

findstr /c:"[SR]" %windir%\Logs\CBS\CBS.log >"%userprofile%\Desktop\sfclogs.txt"

This will output the log to your desktop, where you can review the problematic files. If the errors can’t be fixed, as per the second message listed above, you may want to consider reinstalling Windows to get fresh copies of everything.

4. Disable Your Antivirus

Your antivirus software could be interfering with your system and causing the error. Try temporarily disabling your antivirus and see if the error still occurs. How to disable will vary depending on your software, but chances are it’ll be somewhere in the program’s Settings menu.

If you’re using Windows Defender, press Windows key + I to open Settings. Go to Update & Security > Windows Security > Virus & threat protection > Virus & threat protection settings and slide Real-time protection to Off.

 

Alternatively, if using any third-party antivirus software, you could try uninstalling it entirely. Press Win + I to open Settings and go to Apps. Find your antivirus on the list, click it, then click Uninstall.

Of course, it’s not the best practice to leave your system unprotected. If this doesn’t fix the Unexpected Store Exception error, enable your antivirus again to help keep your computer secure.

5. Turn Off Fast Startup

Fast startup is a feature that is enabled by default on up-to-date Windows 10 systems. With this, your computer uses a type of hibernation in order to give you quicker boot speeds, especially on hard disk drives.

While great, it can cause some drivers to not load properly, which can lead to the Unexpected Store Exception error. As such, it’s worth disabling fast startup to see if it gets rid of the error.

 

Press Win + R to open Run. Input control panel and click OK. Click Power Options, then Choose what the power buttons do from the left-hand panel.

Once here, click Change settings that are currently unavailable. Untick Turn on fast startup (recommended) and click Save changes.

WINDOWS 7 Common Tasks The Windows Command Prompt Makes Quick & Easy

Don’t feel intimidated! The Windows command prompt is simpler and more useful than you expect. Graphical interfaces may be convenient, but sometimes it’s quicker to run a specific command to perform a specific task.

If you’ve never touched the Windows command prompt, or if you’ve given up on it due to issues in the past, we ask that you reconsider. If you still don’t like it, that’s fine and we won’t blame you. However, we think you might be surprised by what you can accomplish with just a few keystrokes.

Run Any Program Easily

Quick program access is important for productivity. Some of us have taskbars and start menus overflowing with shortcut icons. It’s not an ideal situation, often pushing users to seek out taskbar alternatives like these multifunctional docks.

Fortunately, there may be an answer that you hadn’t considered before. With a little bit of setup, you’ll be able to run any program that you want with a single command.

command-prompt-tasks-path-variable

First, you have to create a new folder (such as C:\Shortcuts). This folder will hold the shortcuts that allow fast-access to any program on your system. Once created, we’ll need to add that folder to the system’s PATH environmental variable:

 

  • Right click on My Computer and select Properties.
  • Click on Advanced System Settings.
  • Under the Advanced tab, click on Environment Variables.
  • Under System Variables, edit the PATH variable. Add ;C:\Shortcuts to the end of the variable’s value (don’t forget the semicolon separator).
  • Under System Variables, edit the PATHEXT variable. Add ;.LNK to the end of the variable’s value (don’t forget the semicolon separator).
  • Click OK to close out of all windows.

Now that the environment variable is established, all you have to do is create shortcuts to your programs, place those shortcuts in the C:\Shortcuts directory, and rename them as one-word commands.

command-prompt-tasks-shortcuts

Now, whenever you open up a command prompt, you can run those programs using those shortcut names. The command prompt’s current directory won’t matter. These shortcut commands will work from anywhere.

Rename Local Drives

The label command offers a quick way to change the name of a drive on your system. It’s so simple that there isn’t much to explain about it. Just use it like so:

label [drive:] [name]

For example, if I wanted to name my main drive “innocentric”, I’d run the following command:

label C: innocentric

Defragment Hard Drives

Modern file systems (e.g. NTFS) don’t need to be defragmented as often as file systems of the past (e.g. FAT32), but it’s still an important part of Windows maintenance, if you want to keep your system in tip-top shape. Be cautious with defragmentation of SSDs, though.

Though there are several excellent defragmentation utilities, you can still make do without them using the defrag command:

 

defrag [drive:]

That’s all. However, if you’d like a bit more diagnostic information while the defragmentation occurs, you can use the progress switch to print out progress to the prompt:

defrag [drive:] /U

And if you want as much information as possible, you can toggle the verbose switch:

defrag [drive:] /U /V

Monitor Hard Drive Health

The chkdsk command (read: “check disk”) is a diagnostic tool that scans through your hard drives and tests for potential issues like corrupted data or physical damage. It’s just as easy to use as the defragment command above:

chkdsk [drive:]

Two useful parameters are the fix switch, which attempts to fix any encountered errors, and the recover switch, which will try to recover what it can if it encounters any bad sectors.

chkdsk [drive:] /F /R

Safely Eject External Drives

While drive ejection is as simple as right-clicking on the drive and selecting Eject, sometimes this isn’t possible. For example, you may be stuck in Windows Recovery with no other option than to use the command prompt. What do you do then?

You can use the diskpart command (read: “disk partition”) to eject the drive:

command-prompt-tasks-eject-drive

When diskpart’s specialized prompt is ready, type list volume to get a list of all drives currently recognized by your system. Take note of the drive’s ###, then type select volume [###] according to the drive you want to eject. Make sure you only select drives that are marked “Removable” in the list.

Type remove all dismount to eject the drive and exit to end the specialized prompt. The drive should now be dismounted and safe to remove.

If you have trouble getting the system to recognize the drive again, repeat the process up until you’ve selected the volume, then type assign letter=[letter] to remount the drive. For example, assign letter=I would mount it as an I: drive.

Search File Contents

A handful of tools enable a fast Windows search, but many of them are limited in that they only search through file names and not file contents. The findstr command is a simple way to achieve the latter, allowing you to locate files based on the text within those files.

 

command-prompt-tasks-findstr

This command is the most complex command on this list with over a dozen switches that alter how the search is performed.

Change File Associations

As you may already know, Windows associates particular file formats with programs so that those programs are used when said files need to be opened. The assoc command (read: “associate”) is an easy way to view and edit these file assocations.

Typing the command by itself will list all of the known file associations on your system. This can be useful for diagnostic purposes, otherwise it’s a bit too much information to digest at once. What it’s actually useful for is changing file assocations.

To view the association of an extension:

assoc [.ext]

To clear the association of an extension:

assoc [.ext]=

To set the association of an extension to another filetype:

assoc [.ext]=[filetype]

What is a filetype? For that you’ll need to use the ftype command, which lists all of the known filetypes on your system and which programs they’re associated with. So for example, on my system .TXT is associated as a txtfile and that filetype is opened using Notepad.

Final Thoughts

Yes, there are tools that can handle all of the above tasks, but these commands may come in handy if you ever find yourself stuck in a command prompt or needing to write a batch script.

Plus, we’ve only scratched the surface. Make the command prompt even more useful by learning these important commands for all Windows users and reading over our command prompt cheat sheet. One more important task that ought to be mentioned is the ability to install software through the command prompt.

source:http://www.makeuseof.com

How To Install A New Hard Drive To Replace An Old One

Hard drive space isn’t infinite. Today’s massive drives, with capacities exceeding 1TB, can create that illusion. But as drive sizes increase, ways to consume drive capacity also expand. HD video, for example, can eat gigabytes for breakfast.

That’s the bad news. The good news is that learning how to install a new hard drive isn’t difficult, so there is no need to be concerned about a hard drive that is nearly full.  Read on to find out how to install a new drive to replace an old one.

Identifying The Proper Replacement

Before you can upgrade a hard drive with a new replacement you’ll need to determine the type of drive you need to buy. Today, most hard drives use a data connection known as SATA. However, computers that are several years old might instead support a data connection called IDE. You can easily tell the difference between the two because an IDE connection uses numerous pins, while SATA uses a pin-less L-shaped connector. The picture below provides a comparison – the SATA drive is on the left and the IDE drive is on the right. Laptop drives will obviously be smaller, but have the connections have the same appearance.

how to install a new hard drive

Speaking of size, you’ll also need to make sure you buy a drive with the correct physical dimensions. There are two popular hard drive sizes – 3.5″ and 2.5″. The larger is built for desktop systems, while the smaller is generally for laptops and compact desktops. However, solid state hard drives often come in the 2.5″ size regardless of the type of machine they’re meant to be installed in. This rule isn’t absolute, however, because some all-in-one computers use 2.5″ drives.

Transferring Data From The Old To New Drive

The process of installing a new hard drive is one of the least difficult hardware installation procedures around in terms of the physical effort required. However, the hard drive is one of the most critical components in your system because it stores all of your information. Everything from your operating system to your emails to your favorite songs are stored on your hard drive. Obviously, a straight replacement will leave you without that information.

how to install a hard drive

If you’re using a computer that has more than one hard drive bay you’ll find the process of transferring data from one drive to another to be easy. All you need to do is install the second hard drive in your system and then clone an image of your existing drive using one of the many freeware tools available for this task. Once the old drive’s image has been cloned and placed on the new drive, you can simply remove the old drive or reformat it and use it as a second drive (make sure the clone was successful before taking this step, however!)

how to install a hard drive

Computers that have only a single drive bay are more difficult to work with because you can’t have the new and old drive installed at the same time.You can, however, still clone your old drive to your new one. This is possible by connecting your new drive to your PC with a USB-to-SATA cable or an external hard drive dock. Cloning a drive may take some time because of the bandwidth limitations of USB 2.0, but it will complete eventually.

Replacing The Old Drive

how to install a hard drive

Desktop computer hard drives are usually placed in the lower front half of a mid-tower enclosure and are attached using between two and six screws. The process isn’t overly difficult, but is detailed enough to warrant its own post

Laptops are different, but easier. Most laptops will offer a plastic hard drive bay cover on the bottom of the laptop that is held in with one or two screws. Removing the cover will reveal the drive, which is itself typically attached with a few screws. Installing a replacement drive is simply a matter of taking the existing drive out and putting the new drive in its place. The power and data connections are built into the mount itself, so you don’t have to worry about tracking down the cables. Please note that not all laptops are intended to be user serviceable in this way,  so please read your laptop’s manual for information about hard drive replacement before proceeding.

Booting & Partitioning

how to install a new hard drive

Once you’ve replaced your old drive you will, of course, want to boot up your PC to make sure everything is functioning well. Assuming you did clone your data from your old drive to your new once, this process should be painless. Your PC will barely realize that anything has changed. You should probably visit the Disk Management utility, which can be found by visiting the Administrative Tools –> Computer Management section of the Windows Control Panel, to ensure that Windows is recognizing and using all of your new hard drive’s capacity. If it isn’t, you can extend the current partition to cover the free space or create a new drive partition.

If you didn’t end up cloning your drive, this step will be irrelevant, as you’ll have to format and partition the new drive during the installation process of your operating system.

Conclusion

Hopefully this brief post has given you the information you need to learn how to install a new hard drive. If you have any questions, feel free to post a comment.

How to Optimize the Critical Rendering Path in WordPress

he Critical Rendering Path is the sequence of tasks the browser performs to first render a page on the screen, i.e. to download, process and convert HTML, CSS, and JavaScript code into actual pixels, and paint them on the screen.

The Critical Rendering Path Optimization is the process of minimizing the time spent by the browser to perform each step of the sequence prioritizing the display of content related to the current user action.

Much of this process pertains to the portion of the page that is visible without scrolling down the browser window. That section is also known as Above the Fold. For a better usability, the ATF should be rendered as soon as possible, and this can be done reducing the number of network round trips at a minimum. The resources required to render the ATF are considered critical, and optimizing the Above the Fold means minimizing the impact of critical resources on the time to first render of the page.

In this post, we will walk through the Critical Rendering Path optimization sequence.

  • First, I will provide a general overview of the tasks the browser performs to render a page’s content.
  • Following, I will dissect the most relevant actions we can carry out to optimize the Critical Rendering Path.
  • Finally, I will list some useful (and popular) WordPress optimization plugins.

The Critical Rendering Path Sequence

Here is the sequence of steps performed by the browser to render a page:

  • First, the browser downloads and parses the HTML mark-up and builds the DOM
  • Then it downloads and processes the CSS mark-up and constructs the CSS Object Model
  • It combines DOM and CSSOM nodes required to render the page in the Render Tree, which is a tree structure of all visible nodes
  • It calculates dimensions and position of every object in the page
  • Finally it paints pixels on the screen

The DOM

As well explained in Google’s Critical Rendering Path Optimization guide, the browser builds the Document Object Model in a four step sequence:

  • First, the browser reads the row bytes and translates them to individual characters
  • Then it converts the strings of characters enclosed within angle brackets into tokens
  • These tokens are converted into node objects
  • Node objects are linked in a tree-like data structure that contains HTML content, properties, and all the relationships between nodes. This structure is the Document Object Model.

What is important to note here is that the browser constructs the DOM incrementally. This gives us the opportunity to speed up the rendering of the page by creating efficient DOM structures.

DOM structure

The CSSOM

When the parser encounters a link tag that refers to an external CSS stylesheet, it blocks the parsing and sends out a request for this resource. Once the CSS file has been received, the browser starts building a tree data structure of CSS nodes.

  • The browser reads the row bytes of the .css file and translates them to individual characters
  • It converts the strings of characters enclosed within curly brackets into tokens
  • These tokens are converted into node objects
  • Node objects are linked in a tree-like data structure that contains the CSS properties of each node, and the relationships between nodes. This structure is the CSS Object Model (CSSOM).

Unlike DOM construction, CSSOM construction is not incremental. The browser can’t use a portion of a stylesheet, because styles can be refined and redeclared in the same stylesheet. For this reason, the browser blocks the rendering process until it receives and parses all the CSS. This means that CSS is render blocking.

CSSOM structure

The Render Tree

The browser combines DOM and CSSOM into the Render Tree, which is the final tree structure containing all nodes and properties that are being used to render the page to the screen.

The Render Tree only contains nodes that are required to render a page. As a consequence, invisible nodes are omitted.

The browser uses the Render Tree to calculate node dimensions and position, and ultimately as an input for the paint process.

Render Tree structure

Layout and Paint

In the layout stage, the browser calculates dimensions and position of each node of the Render Tree. In this stage, the browser traverses the Render Tree starting from its root and produces a box model. This information is finally used to convert each node of the Render Tree into actual pixels on the screen.

Critical Rendering Path Optimization

The time required to run the entire process can be variable. It depends on many factors like the document size, the number of requests, the applied styles, the user device, etc.
One of the most relevant Google recommendations is to prioritize visible content so to render the Above the Fold as quick as possible, and provides two main rules to follow:

  • Structure the HTML to load the critical, above-the-fold content first
  • Reduce the amount of data used by HTML, CSS and JS resources

As well explained in Google’s PageSpeed guide, if the amount of data required to render the ATF exceeds the initial congestion window (14.6kb), it will require additional network round trips between the server and browser. On mobile networks, with high latencies, this would significantly delay the page loading (read more on latency).
The browser builds the DOM incrementally, and this gives us the opportunity to reduce the time required to render the ATF by structuring the HTML so to load the above-the-fold first and defer the rest of the page.

The Above the Fold content varies depending on the user device

But optimization does not end with the construction of an effective DOM structure. Rather, it’s a process of improvement and measurement that involves the whole Critical Rendering Path sequence.
Let’s dive deep.

Minimize Resource Dimensions

We can reduce the amount of data the browser is going to download by minifying, compressing and caching HTML, CSS and JavaScript resources:

  • Minification is the process of removing unnecessary characters like comments and white space from the source code. These characters are extremely useful in development, but they’re useless for the browser in order to render the page.
  • Compression is the capability of web servers and clients to reduce the size of transmitted files in order to improve speed and bandwidth utilization
  • Caching: every browser comes with an implementation of an HTTP cache. What we need to do is ensuring that each server response provides the correct HTTP headers to instruct the browser on when and how long it should cache the requested resources

Optimize CSS

Now we know that the browser has to wait until it fetches and processes the CSS code before it can render the page (CSS is render blocking). But not all CSS resources are render-blocking.
CSS can be scoped to particular conditions, and we can optimize it using media types and media queries. If you’re viewing a webpage on the screen, the browser will send a request for print media type but it won’t block the rendering of the page for this resource.
Take the following link tag:

<link rel="stylesheet" href="style.css" />

The referenced stylesheet of this tag applies under any condition, independently from the current media type, screen resolution, device orientation, etc. This means that the CSS resource is always render-blocking.
Luckily, we can send a request for a CSS resource under specific conditions. We could move print styles into a separate file and use the media attribute to tell the browser that the specified style sheet should only be loaded when printing the page, and it doesn’t need to block the rendering on the screen:

<link rel="stylesheet" href="print.css" media="print" />

The browser still downloads the print.css stylesheet, but it won’t block the rendering. Moreover, the browser has to download less data for the main CSS file and this would help us speed up the download. We can specify any media query on the link attribute, so we can split the CSS into multiple files and load them conditionally:

<link rel="stylesheet" href="style.css" media="screen" />
<link rel="stylesheet" href="portrait.css" media="orientation:portrait" />
<link rel="stylesheet" href="widescreen.css" media="(min-width: 42rem)" />

Be sure your styles are actually required to render the page. If they’re not, you can add an appropriate value to media tag attribute and unblock rendering.

Media types and queries can help us to speed up the page rendering, but we can do a lot more.

  • Minify CSS: white space and comments only help us read CSS declarations. By removing comments and whitespace from the stylesheet we can significantly reduce the number of bytes of a CSS file
  • Combine multiple CSS files: this would reduce the number of HTTP requests. This action is particularly important in mobile connections, where performance is affected by high latency (read more on latency).
  • Inline critical CSS: some styles are critical in the sense that they are required to render the above-the-fold of the page. You should always consider inline critical styles directly into the HTML markup to avoid additional HTTP requests. But avoid inlining large CSS files, because this may require additional round trips to render the above-the-fold, and this would result in a PageSpeed warning.

Speed-up Layout and Paint Processes

The time spent by the browser to layout the document depends on the number of DOM elements to layout and on the complexity of those layouts.

  • If you have a lot of DOM elements, the browser could take a long time to calculate position and dimensions of them all: avoid layout whenever it’s possible.
  • Prefer the new Flexbox model, as it’s faster than old Flexbox and floating layouts.
  • Avoid forced synchronous layout with JavaScript

Computing element size and position takes time and reduces performance. Making the DOM as simple as possible, and avoiding the use of JavaScript to anticipate the layout process would help the browser to speed up the page rendering (read more on layout optimization).

Strictly connected to the Layout is the Paint process, which is probably the most time-consuming stage in the Critical Rendering Path sequence, because anytime you change the layout of an element or any non-geometric property the browser triggers a paint event. Making things as simple as possible at this stage could help the browser speed-up the paint process. For instance, a box-shadow property, which requires some sort of calculations, would take longer to paint than a solid border color.

Chrome DevTools allow to identify the portions of the page that are being painted

Optimizing the paint process may not be that easy, and you should make use of your browser’s developer tools to measure how long the browser takes to trigger each paint event. You can read more on this topic in Google’s Rendering Performance guide.

Make JavaScript unblocking

When the browser encounters a script tag it has to stop parsing the HTML code. Inline scripts are executed at the exact point where they are in the document and block the DOM construction until the JS engine finishes running. In other words, inline JavaScript can significantly delay the initial render of the page. But JavaScript also allows to manipulate CSS properties, so the browser has to pause the script execution until it has finished downloading and building the CSSOM, as well. This means that JavaScript is parser blocking.
In case of external JS files, the parser must also wait until the resource has been fetched from cache or remote server, and this could heavily slow down the time to first render of the page.
That being said, what can we do to minimize the time spent by the browser to load and execute JavaScript?

  • Load JavaScript asynchronously: the boolean async attribute of the script tag instructs the browser to execute the script asyncronously, if possible, without blocking the DOM construction. The browser sends the HTTP request for the script, and continues parsing the DOM. Also, the script does not block the CSSOM construction, meaning that it won’t block the Critical Rendering Path (see MDN docs for further information about script tag attributes)
  • Defer JavaScript: the boolean defer attribute of the script tag tells the browser to execute the script after the document has been parsed, but before firing the DOMContentLoaded event. This attribute must not be used if the src attribute is absent, i.e. inline scripts (read more on Mozilla Hacks)
  • Postpone inline JavaScript: many scripts do not manipulate the DOM or the CSSOM, so there is no good reason for them to block the parsing. Unfortunately, we can’t use async and defer attributes for inline scripts, so the only way to load them after the document has been loaded is moving them to the bottom. The advantage is that inline scripts do not require additional HTTP requests. However, inlining scripts used in several pages would result in redundant code.

Wrapping Up Optimization Rules

That’s a lot of stuff, isn’t it? Let’s take a breath, and write down a list of the optimization actions described so far.

  • Minify, compress and cache HTML, CSS and JavaScript resources.
  • Minimize use of render blocking resources (specifically CSS)
    • Use media queries on link tags
    • Split stylesheets and inline critical CSS
    • Combine multiple CSS files
  • Minimize use of parser blocking resources (JavaScript)
    • Use defer attribute on the script tags
    • Use async attribute on the script tags
    • Inline JavaScript and move script tags to the bottom of the document

Now that we know the basic concepts of Critical Rendering Path Optimization, we can have a look at some WordPress popular optimization plugins.

Optimizing the Critical Rendering Path in WordPress

WordPress users can take advantage of a number of plugins that cover almost every aspect of the optimization process. You can install a fully featured plugin, or you can install several plugins at once, each providing specific optimization features.



		

Should You Disable XML-RPC on WordPress?

A few questions came up in our recent blog post, where we discuss XML-RPC brute force attacks, about disabling XML-RPC on WordPress. To allay any confusion, we thought we would describe exactly what XML-RPC does and whether you should consider disabling it.

XML-RPC on WordPress is actually an API or “application program interface“. It gives developers who make mobile apps, desktop apps and other services the ability to talk to your WordPress site. The XML-RPC API that WordPress provides gives developers a way to write applications (for you) that can do many of the things that you can do when logged into WordPress via the web interface. These include:

  • Publish a post
  • Edit a post
  • Delete a post.
  • Upload a new file (e.g. an image for a post)
  • Get a list of comments
  • Edit comments

For a full list of the WordPress API functions available to developers via XML-RPC, take a look at this page on the WordPress codex.

If you disable the XML-RPC service on WordPress, you lose the ability for any application to use this API to talk to WordPress.

Lets use an example to illustrate: You have an app on your iPhone that lets you moderate WordPress comments. Someone advises you to disable XML-RPC. Your iPhone app suddenly stops working because it can no longer communicate with your website using the API you just disabled.

To us, disabling XML-RPC comes with a cost. You are disabling a major API in WordPress. We briefly provided this capability, but removed the feature because WordPress’s own API abuse prevention has improved. Furthermore, providing the ability to disable XML-RPC caused confusion among users when their applications broke because they could not access the API.

Jetpack is one of the most popular plugins for WordPress and relies heavily on XML-RPC to provide its features. It is developed by Automattic, makers of WordPress. If you visit the “Known Issues” page for Jetpack, you’ll notice they discuss how certain security plugins can impact Jetpack features if you use them to disable XML-RPC.

The following two kinds of attacks on XML-RPC have received press coverage during the past 2 years.

  • DDoS via XML-RPC pingbacks. This is actually not a very effective form of DDoS and anti-spam plugins like Akismet have gotten good at spotting this kind of abuse.
  • Brute force attacks via XML-RPC. These are completely ineffective if you’re using Wordfence because we simply block the attacker after they reach the login attempt limit.

If you still want to disable XML-RPC, there are several plugins to choose from in the official WordPress repository. You will lose any XML-RPC API functionality that your applications rely on. We don’t disable XML-RPC on our own sites.

source:https://www.wordfence.com/

 

UDP (User Datagram Protocol)

UDP (User Datagram Protocol) is an alternative communications protocol to Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) used primarily for establishing low-latency and loss-tolerating connections between applications on the internet.

Both UDP and TCP run on top of the Internet Protocol (IP) and are sometimes referred to as UDP/IP or TCP/IP. But there are important differences between the two.

Where UDP enables process-to-process communication, TCP supports host-to-host communication. TCP sends individual packets and is considered a reliable transport medium; UDP sends messages, called datagrams, and is considered a best-effort mode of communications.

In addition, where TCP provides error and flow control, no such mechanisms are supported in UDP. UDP is considered a connectionless protocol because it doesn’t require a virtual circuit to be established before any data transfer occurs.

UDP provides two services not provided by the IP layer. It provides port numbers to help distinguish different user requests and, optionally, a checksum capability to verify that the data arrived intact.

TCP has emerged as the dominant protocol used for the bulk of internet connectivity due to its ability to break large data sets into individual packets, check for and resend lost packets, and reassemble packets in the correct sequence. But these additional services come at a cost in terms of additional data overhead and delays called latency.

In contrast, UDP just sends the packets, which means that it has much lower bandwidth overhead and latency. With UDP, packets may take different paths between sender and receiver and, as a result, some packets may be lost or received out of order.

User datagram protocol features

The user datagram protocol has attributes that make it advantageous for use with applications that can tolerate lost data.

  • It allows packets to be dropped and received in a different order than they were transmitted, making it suitable for real-time applications where latency might be a concern.
  • It can be used for transaction-based protocols, such as DNS or Network Time Protocol (NTP).
  • It can be used where a large number of clients are connected and where real-time error correction isn’t necessary, such as gaming, voice or video conferencing and streaming media.

UDP header composition

UDP uses headers as part of packaging message data to transfer over network connections. UDP headers contain a set of parameters called fields defined by the technical specifications of the protocol.

The User Datagram Protocol header has four fields, each of which is 2 bytes. They are:

  • source port number, which is the number of the sender;
  • destination port number, the port the datagram is addressed to;
  • length, the length in bytes of the UDP header and any encapsulated data; and
  • checksum, which is used in error checking. Its use is required in IPv6 and optional in IPv4.

How UDP works

UDP uses the Internet Protocol to get a datagram (data unit) from one computer to another. UDP works by encapsulating data in a UDP packet and adding its own header information to the packet. This data consists of the source and destination ports to communicate on, the packet length and a checksum. After UDP packets are encapsulated in an Internet Protocol packet, they’re sent off to their destinations.

Unlike TCP, UDP doesn’t guarantee that the packets will get to the right destinations. That means that UDP doesn’t connect to the receiving computer directly as TCP does. Rather, it sends the data out and relies on the devices in between the sending and receiving computers to get the data where it’s supposed to go correctly.

Most applications that use UDP just wait for any replies that are expected as a result of packets sent via UDP. If an application doesn’t receive a reply within a certain timeframe, the application sends the packet again or it stops trying.

UDP uses a simple transmission model that doesn’t include implicit handshaking dialogues to provide reliability, ordering or data integrity. Consequently, UDP’s service is unreliable and packets may arrive out of order, appear to have duplicates or disappear without warning.

Although this transmission method doesn’t guarantee that the data being sent will ever even reach its destination, it does have a very low overhead and it’s popular for services that don’t absolutely have to work the first time.

Applications of UDP

UDP can be used in applications that require lossless data transmission when the application is configured to manage the process of retransmitting lost packets and correctly arranging received packets. This approach can help to improve the data transfer rate of large files compared to TCP.

In the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) communication model, UDP, like TCP, is in Layer 4, the transport layer. UDP works in conjunction with higher level protocols to help manage data transmission services, including Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP), Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP), Simple Network Protocol (SNP) and domain name system (DNS) lookups.

UDP is an ideal protocol for network applications in which perceived latency is critical, such as in gaming and voice and video communications, which can suffer some data loss without adversely affecting perceived quality. In some cases, forward error correction techniques are used to improve audio and video quality in spite of some loss.

UDP can also be used for applications that depend on the reliable exchange of information but should have their own methods to answer packets. These services are advantageous because they’re not bound to fixed patterns to guarantee the completeness and correctness of the data packets sent. Users can decide how and when to respond to information that’s not correct or sorted.

UDP can also be used for multicasting because it supports packet switching. In addition, UDP is used for some routing update protocols, such as the Routing Information Protocol (RIP). UDP can be used in applications where speed rather than reliability is critical. For instance, it might be prudent to use UDP in an application sending data from a fast acquisition where it’s OK to lose some data points.

TCP vs. UDP

TCP and UDP are part of the TCP/IP protocol suite, which includes a number of protocols for carrying out network communications.

UDP characteristics:

  • is a connectionless protocol
  • is used for VoIP, video streaming, gaming and live broadcasts
  • it’s faster and needs fewer resources
  • the packets don’t necessarily arrive in order
  • it allows missing packets. The sender is unable to know whether a packet has been received
  • better suited for applications that need fast, efficient transmission, such as games.

TCP characteristics:

  • is a connection-oriented protocol
  • it’s the most widely used protocol on the Internet
  • it guarantees that no packets are missing and all the data that’s sent makes it to the intended recipient
  • sends packets in order so they can be stitched back together easily.
  • it’s slower and requires more resources
  • has a bigger header than UDP
  • best suited for apps that need high reliability, and transmission time is relatively less critical.

Server Message Block Protocol (SMB protocol)

The Server Message Block Protocol (SMB protocol) is a client-server communication protocol used for sharing access to files, printers, serial ports and other resources on a network. It can also carry transaction protocols for interprocess communication.

Created by IBM in the 1980s, the SMB protocol has since spawned multiple variants or implementations, also known as dialects, to meet evolving network requirements over the years.

How does the SMB protocol work?

The SMB protocol enables an application — or the user of an application — to access files on a remote server, as well as other resources, including printers, mail slots and named pipes. Thus, a client application can open, read, move, create and update files on the remote server. It can also communicate with any server program that is set up to receive an SMB client request.

The SMB protocol is known as a response-request protocol, meaning that it transmits multiple messages between the client and server to establish a connection.

An early dialect of the SMB protocol, Common Internet File System (CIFS), gained notoriety as a chatty protocol that bogged down wide area network (WAN) performance due to the combined burdens of and CIFS’ numerous acknowledgments. The next dialect, SMB 2.0, improved the protocol’s efficiency by drastically reducing its hundreds of commands and subcommands down to just 19.

The SMB protocol operates in Layer 7, also known as the application layer, and can be used over TCP/IP on port 445 for transport. Early dialects of the SMB protocol use the application programming interface (API) NetBIOS over TCP/IP, or legacy protocols such as the Internetwork Packet Exchange or NetBEUI. Today, communication with devices that do not support SMB directly over TCP/IP requires the use of NetBIOS over a transport protocol, such as TCP/IP.

Microsoft Windows operating systems since Windows 95 have included client and server SMB protocol support. Samba, an open source server that supports the SMB protocol, was released for Unix systems.

A client and server may implement different variations of SMB, which they negotiate before starting a session.

SMB protocol dialects

Variants of the SMB protocol have improved the original implementation’s capabilities, scalability, security and efficiency. Here is a brief overview of the SMB protocol’s notable dialects:

  • SMB 1.0 (1984): Created by IBM for file sharing in DOS. Introduced opportunistic locking (OpLock) as a client-side caching mechanism designed to reduce network traffic. Microsoft would later include the SMB protocol in its LAN Manager product.
  • CIFS (1996): Microsoft-developed SMB dialect that debuted in Windows 95. Added support for larger file sizes, transport directly over TCP/IP, and symbolic links and hard links.
  • SMB 2.0 (2006): Released with Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008. Reduced chattiness to improve performance, enhanced scalability and resiliency, and added support for WAN acceleration.
  • SMB 2.1 (2010): Introduced with Windows Server 2008 R2 and Windows 7. The client oplock leasing model replaced OpLock to enhance caching and improve performance. Other updates included large maximum transmission unit (MTU) support and improved energy efficiency, which enabled clients with open files from an SMB server to enter sleep mode.
  • SMB 3.0 (2012): Debuted in Windows 8 and Windows Server 2012. Added several significant upgrades to improve availability, performance, backup, security and management. Noteworthy new features included SMB Multichannel, SMB Direct, transparent failover of client access, Remote VSS support, SMB Encryption and more.
  • SMB 3.02 (2014): Introduced in Windows 8.1 and Windows Server 2012 R2. Included performance updates and the ability to completely disable CIFS/SMB 1.0 support, including removal of the related binaries.
  • SMB 3.1.1 (2015): Released with Windows 10 and Windows Server 2016. Added support for advanced encryption, preauthentication integrity to prevent man-in-the-middle attacks and cluster dialect fencing, among other updates.

In 2017, the WannaCry and Petya ransomware attacks exploited a vulnerability in SMB 1.0 to load malware on vulnerable clients and propagate it across networks. Microsoft subsequently released a patch, but experts have advised users and administrators to take the additional step of disabling SMB 1.0/CIFS on all systems.

CIFS vs. SMB

As noted in the list above, CIFS is an early dialect of the SMB protocol developed by Microsoft. Although the terms are sometimes used interchangeably, CIFS only refers to a single implementation of SMB. Most modern systems use more recent dialects of the SMB protocol.

Samba vs. SMB

Released in 1992, Samba is an open source implementation of the SMB protocol for Unix systems and Linux distributions. It supports file sharing and print services, authentication and authorization, name resolution, and service announcements between Linux/Unix servers and Windows clients.

 

source: https://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/definition/Server-Message-Block-Protocol